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With regard to this last topic it is to be noted that the historical sketch appended to each section deals only with that part of the history that may properly be held to belong to geography, and in many cases all that could be attempted within our limits of space was to give the date from which the part of the earth treated of has formed a separate political division. 689); and sometimes their basins are due to barriers that have been thrown across the mouths of gorges or shallower depressions.
The different countries and regions composing that continent are then de- scribed separately, and under each the same topics are treated in greater detail, while in addition notices are supplied relating to trade and com- merce, means of communication, government and defence, the chief towns, and the historical vicissitudes of the territories. Very often lakes occupy the craters of extinct volcanoes (see p.
THE WOULD AS IT IS: A POPULAR ACCOUNT OF THE COUNTRIES AND PEOPLES OF THE EARTH. A glance at the table of contents will acquaint the reader more precisely with the nature of the topics dealt with in this part of the work. Ramsay points put that in Loch Etive in Argyleshire, where, between Oban and Taynuilt, the water at low tide rushes from the upper part of the loch over a barrier which rises above the low-tide level, we have an in- stance of an inland lake in the process of being formed in the same manner as Loch Maree. from the deposition of alluvial matter along the coast.
Its aim is thus to give as briefly as possible a description of the earth as a whole, and an account of the forces affecting the surface and the crust. In the name Kinlochewe, meaning head of Loch Ewe, a place now- standing at the head of Loch Maree in Ross-shire, we have an interesting piece of evidence showing that this lake has been so formed since the region was first inhabited by a Celtic race; and Dr.
Many lakes are formed by cutting off portions of the sea, and this also may happen in various ways.
In other cases lake-basins are formed by subsidences of the upper strata of the earth, in consequence, it may be, of the strata lying beneath being dissolved away by the action of water.
Few natural phenomena exceed a waterfall in grandeur, when the body of water is large and the height from which it falls great.
At the Victoria Falls on the Zambesi in South Africa (p. When there is a sudden change of level in the bed of a river, a waterfall or cataract is produced, the river sometimes leaping down to the lower level with a single plunge, some- times falling from steep to steep in a succession of cataracts. Such parts of a river are called rapids, which are exemplified on a great scale in the Niagara and St. The so-called cataracts of the Nile are in reality nothing more than rapids. and 126 E., that is, to convert into land the whole area between China and the peninsula of Corea. Where the declivity of a river-bed is steep and irregular the river flows with great rapidity and with much tumult of its waters. From the rate of sedimentation ascertained for the Yangtsekiang, the Peiho, and the Hoangho, it has been calculated that 36,000 years would suffice to fill up the Yellow Sea as far as 29 N.