Dating hohokam canals
For thirty years, Fremont ceramic analysts have primarily relied on the ceramic typology proposed by R. The intervening years of research have yielded a wealth of relevant data and refined analytical techniques. Wichlacz 2009 A Preliminary Evaluation of the Verde Confederacy Model: Testing Expectations of Pottery Exchange in the Central Arizona Highlands. In the high mesa country of central Arizona large, masonry pueblos were constructed around AD 1250–1300 overlooking the vertical walls of Perry Mesa, in the Bloody Basin, and along the middle Verde River valley. In Alliance and Landscape: Perry Mesa Arizona in the 14th Century, edited by D. First, unlike previous conceptualizations of social boundaries as monolithic, I argue that they are better conceived of as a heterogeneous, multi-faceted phenomenon.Contemporary analysts regularly identify variations in Fremont ceramic temper that exceed Madsen’s descriptions. In Interpreting Silent Artefacts: Petrographic Approaches to Archaeological Ceramics, edited by Patrick S. As these settlement clusters coalesced, a 45 km expanse of empty land opened between the upland pueblos and the densely packed Hohokam population centers in the Phoenix Basin. Second, I investigate social boundaries by examining multiple lines of evidence.We suggest that TL dating of ceramics is a viable method to date Hohokam canals accurately. Here we present what we believe to be the critical factors in the deconstruction of the interaction sphere, the explanation of variability in the distributions of specific goods that moved across the Fremont landscape, and the mechanisms responsible for that movement. I focus on boundaries between entities larger than villages, but smaller than regions or culture areas.In addition, we discuss the apparent unreliability of the single-aliquot fine-silt-polymineral OSL dating technique for dating prehistoric canal sediments. Regional demographic movements during the mid 13th-14th centuries signaled corresponding changes to social and economic networks throughout the American Southwest. In Perspectives on Prehistoric Trade and Exchange in California and the Great Basin, edited by Richard E. We believe that understanding of these mechanisms can be elucidated by discussing style and interaction spheres with a focus on tribal societies Watkins, Christopher. and Sophia Kelly 2014 Plain Ware Pottery Production and Exchange: Implications for Alliance and Landscape in Central Arizona. I propose three innovations to better accomplish these goals.To support this hypothesis, I describe the excavation of a Hohokam field house site on the Arizona State University Campus that may have been used by sharecroppers.In this case study, we compare the utility of four different methods for dating Hohokam canals: ceramic cross-dating, AMS radiocarbon dating of annuals, thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sherds, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of canal sediments.
Other forms of supra-household labor such as slavery, servitude, wage labor, and fixed rent arrangements are present, but are much less common.In one corner of the site, volunteers from the Arizona Museum of Natural History constructed a replica of a Hohokam ballcourt, an open-air structure where ballgames were played using a rubber ball made from a local plant.One of two Hohokam "great mounds" in the Salt River Valley, the Mesa Grande mound was a dramatic symbol of the power of this ancient community.In this study I consider the possibility that the Hohokam may have drawn on agricultural labor from beyond the immediate household.Using a sample of 10 ethnographically known smallholder irrigation agriculturalists, I examine the nature and occurrence of supra-household agricultural labor.