Dating enamelware Webcamfree no login

By the 14th century this enamel technique had spread to China, where it was soon used for much larger vessels such as bowls and vases; the technique remains common in China to the present day, and cloisonné enamel objects using Chinese-derived styles were produced in the West from the 18th century.

Cloisonné first developed in the jewellery of the ancient Near East, typically in very small pieces such as rings, with thin wire forming the cloisons.

In Byzantine pieces, and even more in Chinese work, the wire by no means always encloses a separate color of enamel.

Some objects combined thick and thin cloisons for varied effect.

The designs often (as at right) contained a generous background of plain gold, as in contemporary Byzantine mosaics.

The plaques with apostles of around the latter date on the Holy Crown of Hungary show a unique transitional phase, where the base plaque has hammered recesses for the design, as in senkschmelz work, but the enamel covers the whole plaque except for thick outlines around the figures and inscriptions, as in the vollschmelz technique (see the gallery below for examples of this technique and vollschmelz work).

From Byzantium or the Islamic world the technique reached China in the 13–14th centuries; the first written reference is in a book of 1388, where it is called "Dashi ware".

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